The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of hypoxic physical exercise on metabolic syndrome (MS) risk markers and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and to compare its effects on preperitoneal fat, arterial stiffness, and several blood parameters related to MS to those of a control group who trained under normoxic conditions. Fourteen healthy men were examined. Participants performed treadmill exercise 3 days per week for 4 weeks, under either normobaric hypoxic or normobaric normoxic conditions, for 50 min (including a 5-min warm-up and 5-min cool down) after a 30-min rest period. Exercise was performed at a heart rate (HR) corresponding to 60% of the HR at each individual’s maximum oxygen uptake. Training under the different environmental conditions was performed 4 months apart to ensure a sufficient washout period. Waist circumference, preperitoneal fat thickness, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, and high-sensitivity CRP after training were significantly lower in the hypoxic group than in the normoxic group. Our results suggest that regular short-term hypoxic training may more effectively reduce arterial stiffness, and thus prevent arteriosclerosis, compared to training performed at a similar exercise intensity under normoxic conditions.
Authors: Shi B, Watanabe T, Shin S, Yabumoto T, Takemura M, Matsuoka T
Source: Physiol Rep.
Trends in the use of preconditioning to hypoxia for early prevention of future life diseases
Environmental factors during fetal life program the health outcomes regarding many diseases in future life. This idea has been supported by worldwide epidemiological studies, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Three questions should be answered. (i) Does a common underlying cause of ordinary pathological fetal development exist? (ii) If such a cause exists, which mechanism might develop disease in later life? (iii) Is it possible to prevent this underlying cause and therefore the associated obstetric complications to primarily prevent future life diseases? The objective of this review is to attempt to answer these three questions by using PubMed (extending to October 2012) and other sources. Three data-based answers corresponding to these questions were found: (i) hypoxia, (ii) excessive stimulation of neurogenesis, and (iii) preconditioning/adaptation to hypoxia. The method for such preconditioning/adaptation is intermittent hypoxic training (IHT), in which air with low oxygen concentration is breathed through a mask to protect against subsequent strong adverse influences. Data are cited for IHT applications for the prevention/treatment of diseases in different fields, particularly in obstetrics. Data suggested that all common fetal origins of adult diseases are likely predetermined by changes in the fetal brain; therefore, early detection of these changes must be very important. The use of IHT may be a real means to primarily prevent obstetric complications and therefore, prevent future life diseases.
Authors: Basovich SN
Source: Biosci Trends